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How are the solar panels connected?

The solar panels have two cables with MC4 connectors. So cables are cables at classic copper with a diameter generally 6000 mm² or 4000 mm², depending on the power of the panels. Mc4 connectors are specially designed for photovoltaic applications. These plugs snap into place, so they don't come loose with the pull, and they're watertight. So it's solid and water-resistant. Panels are connected in series; up to 20 panels can be connected to a series of panels. and the series of panels. two wires that loop from panel to panel and back to the inverter. So there's a + side & a - side in the inverter. Then there are inverters with several series. You can add several series. There's a minimum of five-six panels in a series for enough power to get it going. So if we have panels on the east side, we'll put the panels on the east side on one series, and the panels on the west side on another series, which are connected to the inverter. Why aren't they connected to the same series? This is because the sun must have the same intensity on panels that are on the same series. Otherwise, voltage problems may arise, as the panels will be subjected to an electrical voltage under the effect of the sun. But if there are panels on one side that are in the shade, there's a resistance that will be created by the panels. So we have to put them on different series. And the inverters are equipped with two inputs that will draw maximum power from panels with the same inclination and orientation.   If ever there's a shadow on the panels, a panel or a few panels from the same series, e.g. a chimney, dirt or similar. We already have the panel itself, a system of diodes inside, from 3 to 6 diodes depending on the panel, which will short-circuit the cells of the panel that are in the shade. So we'll still have the cells that aren't in the shade working. Now, if the panel itself doesn't produce enough, we'll use an optimizer. It's a box under the panel that adds Mc4 connections, and this optimizer will ensure that the panel doesn't affect the rest of the panels. So if there's a panel in the shade, the optimizer will adapt the voltage so that it doesn't reduce the power of the other panels that are in full sunlight. That's what a small motor is for, and it's part of the panel connection.